What is an Operating System?How it Works?
What is an Operating System?
The operating system is a part of the software part of the computer. In easy language, it can be said that the entire software is based on this system. The presence of the operating system is so important for software that many people consider the operating system as software.
A computer, laptop or any kind of mobile phone is run by mixing two types of parts. It consists of first part hardware and second part software. Both these types of parts are as important for computers as the brain and heart for the human body. The hardware part is hard and is visible, the software part is not visible or in easy language, it is contained in the hardware itself. However, both these parts are also divided into many pieces. Out of these pieces, a part of the software is the operating system. It is connected to the software of the computer and works for the same.
Types of Operating System?
Operating systems are divided into several parts based on their ability to function and the ability to command. Following are the types of operating systems: –
• Network Operating System
• Distributed Operating System
• Batch Operating System
• Time-Sharing Operating System
• Real-Time Operating System
Network Operating System
Such operating systems function almost exactly like distributed operating systems. But there is a difference between them that there used to be the main system but here every system can function in its own way. All these systems are connected to each other through the network and also share devices with each other such as printers, scanners.
Distributed Operating System
Such operating systems are also called remote systems in easy language. It performs the same function as the network but it acts through wires. In such a system many computers are connected together that work together. All these computers can be accessed simultaneously.
Advantages of Distributed System:
• Failure of any connected part will not make any difference to any other system. All these systems are independent and connected only to the main system.
• Electronic mail between these systems increases the speed of data exchange.
• There is not much load on the main system.
• Networks can be connected to unlimited systems.
• Work can be completed fairly quickly.
Disadvantages of a Distributed System:
• Such systems are much more expensive and cannot be used easily.
• The efficiency of using this system has not been developed yet.
• After the main network fails, it will stop working at all.
Batch Operating System
This type of operating system does not directly contact the computer’s CPU, to do this it has different batches. Just as if there is a separate batch for the printer if there is a job from the printer, a separate batch for the scanner if there is a job from the scanner. It does this by dividing the work into pieces, these pieces can be called batch hence its name is the batch operating system.
Advantages of Batch System:
• It is quite easy to manage large tasks in a batch system.
• Many users can run the batch system on their own.
• The batch system is much faster in terms of time.
• The time it takes to complete any task in a batch operating system can be anything.
Disadvantages of Batch System:
• Batch is completed from the command line in the system ie there is no option of multi-tasking.
• Sometimes it proves to be too expensive.
• Extreme efficiency is required to work with batch systems.
• Debugging a batch system is much more difficult.
Time-Sharing Operating System:
A time-sharing system is a type of multi-task system. This gives every task a chance to continue on its own. In easy language, it can be understood by example of a mobile phone. For example, in mobile phones, you can do everything from playing songs to playing games simultaneously. The time-sharing system works like this. The time in which any task is completed is called quantum.
Advantages of Time-Sharing System:
• The workload of the CPU is greatly reduced.
• Each task is given equal time.
• Chances of duplication of software are almost eliminated.
Disadvantages of Time-Sharing System:
• There is a lot of communication problems in data.
• In this, the problem of reliabilities is more than the limit.
• Security has to be taken special care of. There is a risk of both data loss and theft.
Real-Time Operating System
The real-time operating system is a kind of fast operating system. It takes very little time to process any work. In real-time operating systems, the time interval is called response time. Real-time systems are used in places where there is a lot of time constraints. For example, missile systems, air traffic control systems, and robots can be seen.
Types of the real-time system:
- Hard real-time system: – Such system is used when the time shortage is too much and the work has to be completed as quickly as possible.
- Soft real-time system: – Such a system is used when there is a shortage of time but not so much.
Advantages of the real-time system:
• In such a system, the time taken to shift the task is much less. It only takes 10 microseconds.
• This attaches great importance to currently running applications.
• Such systems are very small in size so they can be used on small servers as well.
• Any device can be used as much as you want.
• Such servers are error-free.
Disadvantages of the real-time system:
• Task switching is much more difficult in such systems.
• Algorithms of such systems are much more difficult. This kind of algorithm requires much more skill to understand.
• It requires special device drivers
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